NMC/CoSN Horizon Report: 2016 K-12 Edition

Citation Adams Becker, S., Freeman, A., Giesinger Hall, C., Cummins, M., & Yuhnke, B. (2016). NMC/CoSN Horizon Report: 2016 K-12 Edition. Austin, TX, USA. Retrieved from http://cdn.nmc.org/media/2016-nmc-cosn-horizon-report-k12-EN.pdf. Sidewiki
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address = {Austin, TX, USA},
author = {Adams Becker, S. and Freeman, A. and Giesinger Hall, C. and Cummins, M. and Yuhnke, B.},
date-added = {2016-10-04 14:31:28 -0400},
date-modified = {2016-10-07 15:21:45 -0400},
date-read = {2016-10-07 15:21:45 -0400},
institution = {The New Media Consortium},
keywords = {environmental scanning},
read = {1},
title = {NMC/CoSN Horizon Report: 2016 K-12 Edition},
url = {http://cdn.nmc.org/media/2016-nmc-cosn-horizon-report-k12-EN.pdf},
year = {2016},


Links here


Executive Summary p. 1

partnering with local businesses to provide real-world experiences for students and expose them to different careers at a young age. p. 1

Connections to experiential learning? Service learning? p. 1

pre-service training and professional development p. 1

creative technology use p. 1

transition from lecturers to guides and coaches p. 1

bridging the achievement gap as a wicked challenge p. 1

Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) p. 1

not every demographic has the same level of access, and learning outcomes are still unequal throughout the world. p. 1

This publication charts the five-year horizon for the impact of emerging technologies in school communities across the globe p. 1

Moving from teacher-driven to student-driven p. 1

Makerspaces p. 1

online learning p. 1

widely adopted by schools in one year’s time or less p. 1

In partnership with CoSN this year, a companion toolkit known as the Horizon Report Digital Toolkit: 2016 K-12 Edition was created to encourage discussions around these findings in local communities and help practitioners implement the ideas in this report. p. 1

The time-toadoption for robotics and virtual reality are estimated within two to three years p. 1

artificial intelligence and wearable technology are expected to be mainstream in schools within four to five years. p. 1

two long-term trends: p. 1

redesigning learning spaces to accommodate more immersive, hands-on activities p. 1

Alluding to global competencies? p. 1

rethinking how schools work in order to keep pace with the demands of the 21st century workforce and equip students with future-focused skills p. 1

rise of coding as a literacy p. 1

to improve, support, or extend teaching, learning, and creative inquiry in K-12 education across the globe. p. 1

proven to bolster problem-solving, creativity, and critical thinking skills p. 1

creative inquiry p. 1

Regarding the challenges for schools p. 1

creating more authentic learning opportunities p. 1

reconfiguring the roles of teachers p. 1

solvable p. 1

Introduction p. 3

NMC Horizon Project, a comprehensive effort established in 2002 by the NMC that identifies and describes important developments in technology likely to have a large impact over the coming five years in education around the globe p. 3

four global editions p. 3

NMC Horizon Report — higher education, K-12 education, museum, and library p. 3

six developments in technology or digital strategies p. 3

Key trends and challenges that will affect current practice p. 3

primary and secondary research p. 3

Six key trends, six significant challenges, and six important developments in educational technology p. 3

international expert panel p. 3

This process takes place online, p. 3

NMC Horizon Project wiki p. 3

The wiki used for the NMC/CoSN Horizon Report: 2016 K-12 Edition can be found at k12.wiki.nmc.org. p. 3

panel was composed of 59 education and technology experts from 18 countries on six continents this year p. 4

research questions p. 4

core of the NMC Horizon Project p. 4

1Whichof the important developments in educational technology catalogued in the NMC Horizon Project Listing will be most important to teaching, learning, or creative inquiry in global K-12 education within the next five years? p. 4

2What important developments in educational technology are missing from our list? Consider these related question: p. 4

3What key trends do you expect to accelerate educational technology uptake in K-12 education over the next five years? p. 4

Once the panel for a particular edition is constituted, their work begins with a systematic review of the literature — press clippings, reports, essays, and other materials — that pertains to emerging technology. p. 4

4What do you see as the significant challenges impeding educational technology uptake in K-12 education during the next five years? p. 4

responses to the research questions are systematically ranked and placed into adoption horizons p. 4

multi-vote system p. 4

collective ranking p. 4

carefully selected set of RSS feeds from hundreds of relevant publications ensures that background resources stay current as the project progresses. p. 4

Key Trends Accelerating Technology Adoption in K-12 Education p. 6

integration of coding as a new form of digital literacy is currently on the rise in schools in the short-term, due to its significant role in imparting computer science skills in learners. p. 6

long-term trends p. 6

impacting decision-making and will continue to be important p. 6

more than five years p. 6

mid-term trends p. 6

next three to five years p. 6

short-term trends p. 6

one to two years, p. 6

becoming commonplace or fading away in that time. p. 6

three metadimensions p. 6

policy, leadership, and practice p. 6

Policy p. 6

formal laws, regulations, rules, and guidelines that govern schools p. 6

Leadership. p. 6

leadership p. 6

product of experts’ visions of the future of learning, based on research and deep consideration p. 6

practice p. 6

new ideas and pedagogies take action, in schools and related settings p. 6

two trends p. 6

Collaborative learning p. 6

Policy. p. 6

midterm development p. 6

two trends p. 6

embedding the spirit of teamwork and cooperation deeply into school cultures p. 6

next five years. p. 6

Governments all over the world are contributing to the long-term re-envisioning of schools with policies that promote competency-based learning, 21st century skill acquisition, and workforce readiness p. 6

notion of students as creators rather than merely passive consumers of knowledge p. 7

empower student-driven media production and invention p. 7

Practice. p. 7

redesign of physical learning spaces p. 7

redesign of physical learning spaces, p. 7

two developing long-term trends p. 7

crucial for nurturing 21st century learning opportunities. p. 7

prioritizing deeper learning approaches that favor real-world experiences to better prepare students for the workforce. p. 7

mention of "deeper learning" - connects to pedagogical underpinning of global competencies p. 7

Redesigning Learning Spaces Long-Term Trend: Driving EdTech adoption in K-12 education for five or more years p. 8

More flexible learning environments contain moveable furniture and technology that enable active learning p. 8

student-centric pedagogies are being embraced p. 8

Schools and districts are also investigating methods to construct buildings and design classrooms that factor in economic viability, environmental consciousness, and social awareness p. 8

Overview p. 8

Implications for Policy, Leadership, or Practice p. 8

movement toward student-centered and collaborative learning, especially when enhanced by technology. p. 8

implementations of revamped pedagogies and spaces. p. 9

Learning Environments Applied Research Network (LEaRN) was established as an international forum facilitating education and industry to study and envision physical learning environments. p. 9

Evaluation of 21st Century Learning Environments is developing three multidisciplinary evaluation frameworks for learning spaces p. 9

Successful exemplars of modern spatial design are accommodating the needs of 21st century learners. p. 9

Rethinking How Schools Work Long-Term Trend: Driving Ed Tech adoption in K-12 education for five or more years p. 10

growth of remote interaction p. 10

call for school structures that enable students to move from one learning activity to another more organically, removing the limitations of bell schedules. p. 10

advancements in information and communications technology (ICT) and social networks make it easier than ever for students to connect with and learn from renowned authors, scientists, and other experts outside of the building p. 10

As learning becomes more fluid and student-centered, K-12 leaders believe that schedules should be more flexible, allowing opportunities for authentic learning and ample room for independent study.31 p. 10

K-12 leaders are beginning to pilot competency-based models that certify the mastery of specific skills through students’ active demonstration of knowledge in real-world scenarios.36 p. 10

notion that public, private, and charter schools are no longer the sole options; unconventional models including open, virtual, and project-based learning schools are expanding possibilities for formal education. p. 10

Education leaders looking for successful alternative models to adopt can look to Nordic school systems. p. 10

In addition to fostering more equitable conditions for students, schools in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden have been pioneers of emerging technology and 1:1 programs. p. 10

Overview p. 10

schools are decidedly more agile and student-centered, creatively leveraging technology to cultivate more engaged and active learning. p. 10

US p. 10

High Tech High, where teachers and students co-design a curriculum around solving real-world problems.39 p. 10

Facebook recently partnered with Summit Public Schools, a nonprofit charter school network in Silicon Valley, to launch a free student-directed learning system in which students choose their projects and set their own pace.40 p. 10

Implications for Policy, Leadership, or Practice p. 10

Finland has made significant progress in devising policies that revamp K-12 schooling. p. 10

traditional subjectbased classes like history and math to be replaced with interdisciplinary classes based on broader topics, such as the EU or vocation-specific lessons.4 p. 11

individual schools and districts are rethinking their grading polices. p. 11

Implementing new models of education at scale necessitates sufficient leadership and support networks. p. 11

group of educators in Asia has founded an active learning approach called AMPed p. 11

Many international schools across the continent p. 11

International School of Beijing (ISB) Futures Academy p. 11

experiential learning p. 11

Funding is also vital for advancing this long-term trend. p. 11

New models are being envisioned to better facilitate independent study and creative inquiry, particularly for at-risk learners. p. 11

New York’s Bronx Arena High School p. 11

eradicating formal classes p. 11

self-guided learning p. 11

developing core competencies that mirror real work environments p. 11

agile classroom design at Connecticut’s Fairchild Wheeler Interdistrict Magnet Campus resembles a Silicon Valley workspace p. 11

shift from a traditional lecture-centered model to collaborative learning.48 p. 11

Collaborative Learning Mid-Term Trend: Driving EdTech adoption in K-12 education for the next three to five years p. 12

at the center, emphasizing interaction, working in groups, and developing solutions to real problems. p. 12

Collaborative learning models are proving successful in improving student engagement and achievement, especially for disadvantaged students. p. 12

Educators also benefit through peer groups as they participate in professional development and interdisciplinary teaching.50 p. 12

increasing focus on global online collaboration where digital tools are used to support interactions around curricular objectives and promote intercultural understanding.51 p. 12

When applied in the spirit of deeper collaboration, technology can unite students around big ideas and projects while integrating web-based resources that will expand their learning. p. 12

Digital tools are fundamental ingredients in the facilitation of collaborative learning approaches, offering platforms for communication and activities in synchronous and asynchronous environments.62 p. 12

Overview p. 12

Collaborative learning, also commonly referred to as cooperative learning, p. 12

NO! NOT the same thing!!! p. 12

Cloud computing has been particularly lauded for its role in bolstering collaboration as it instills unlimited potential for teacher, student, and parent communication.64 p. 12

contemporary technologies are expanding the reach of cooperative learning strategies by furthering the communication and collaboration competencies that affect how students approach complex challenges. p. 12

cloud-based collaboration tools p. 12

Implications for Policy, Leadership, or Practice p. 12

recent US policy brief, “Using Technology to Support At-Risk Students’ Learning,” p. 12

should prioritize technology implementations in schools that promote student engagement in authentic tasks and develop 21st century skills, including collaboration, and not those focused on remediation.65 p. 12

Student learning is optimized when experiencing a blend of cooperative and individual work.57 p. 12

promote student engagement in authentic tasks p. 12

develop 21st century skills, including collaboration p. 12

Successful collaborative learning strategies encourage increased student achievement, discussion, confidence, and active learning.58 p. 12

Innovative teachers have begun to explore new technologies for cooperative problem-solving. p. 13

Future University in Japan p. 13

investigating participant collaboration in virtual worlds as a medium for solving project-based tasks.72 p. 13

The Smithsonian p. 13

Learning Lab p. 13

ensure that teachers have timely information to guide them p. 13

Collaborative digital tools will enable teachers to efficiently observe student groups and deliver feedback.75 p. 13

Deeper Learning Approaches Mid-Term Trend: Driving EdTech adoption in K-12 education for the next three to five years p. 14

Using William and Flora Hewlett Foundation's definition of deeper learning: "mastery of content that engages students in critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, and self-directed learning." (p.14) p. 14

Pedagogical approaches that shift the dynamic from passive to active learning allow students to develop ideas themselves from new information and take control of how they engage with a subject. p. 14

Further, there is growing evidence suggesting that deeper learning approaches are more effective than traditional lecture-style models. p. 14

approaches include problem-based learning,78 projectbased learning,79 challenge-based learning,80 and inquiry-based learning, p. 14

enabling role of technologies p. 14

educators are leveraging these tools to connect the curriculum with real-life applications. p. 14

Overview p. 14

deeper learning network schools were identified as producing better academic results, stronger interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, higher on-time graduation rates, and higher enrollment in four-year colleges. All students shared these positive results, regardless of their backgrounds or prior levels of achievement.86 p. 14

idea of deeper learning is not a new concept, but the technologies leveraged to support deeper learning pedagogies are continually evolving p. 14

social media platforms like Twitter p. 14

Implications for Policy, Leadership, or Practice p. 14

Digital tools for content creation p. 14

Finland’s National Core Curricula p. 14

Deeper learning approaches are often flexible and allow room for students to experiment with various technologies, platforms, and tools depending on what support they need for particular projects.84 p. 14

autumn of 2016 all schools are expected to design and provide at least one multi-disciplinary, phenomenonand project-based study-period per school year p. 14

one multi-disciplinary, phenomenon- p. 14

project-based study-period p. 14

Phenomenon-based curriculum integrates different subjects and themes, crossing boundaries between them, so that students can study and think critically about real-world issues p. 14

ENGAGE project p. 14

working to embed inquiry-based p. 14

methods into schools across the EU p. 15

Students p. 15

influencing policy on science education and providing recommendations for curriculum design.89 p. 15

A number of organizations are providing support to schools to incorporate deeper learning. p. 15

New Tech Network p. 15

over 100 schools, districts, and communities across the US and Australia p. 15

PBL p. 15

Digital resources that enhance curriculum are also being created to support inquiryand project-based learning that can be openly accessed from anywhere. p. 15

inquiry-based curriculum called EcoMUVE p. 15

EU’s Go-Lab project, is another notable inquiry-based learning initiative providing a portal to hundreds of online laboratories p. 15

authoring platform for educators and students to create personalized inquiry learning spaces to support their own experiments.92 p. 15

Educators and schools can also learn from each other when it comes to implementing deeper learning methods and activities. p. 15

Deeper learning often occurs when students are provided with greater flexibility and choice so that their passions can guide them. p. 15

Coding as a Literacy Short-Term Trend: Driving Ed Tech adoption in K-12 education for the next one to two years p. 16

with devices to controlling how those devices interact with them. p. 16

As coding bolsters problem-solving and logical thinking skills, it is becoming part of national curricula, particularly in Europe. p. 16

Estonia was among the first European countries to launch a pilot program in 2012 for all students from grades 1 through 12 p. 16

UK has mandated coding in primary and secondary school p. 16

Code.org recently projected that by 2020, there will be 1.4 million computing jobs but only 400,000 computer science students to fill them.97 p. 16

in autumn 2016, Finland will require primary students to learn it.104 p. 16

Australia, Tasmania introduced HTML and CSS coding to the primary school curriculum in 2015 p. 16

Schools worldwide are developing coding programs in which students collaboratively design websites, develop educational games and apps, and design solutions to challenges by modeling and prototyping new products. p. 16

Raspberry PI, Scratch, and LegoNXT p. 16

technology giants pledged $48 million dollars to this initiative, with nearly half the funding allocated to Code.org, an organization that teaches coding.106 p. 16

Overview p. 16

Hour of Code has sparked a micro-learning movement, serving nearly 263 million people since its inception in 2013.107 p. 16

#HourofCode p. 16

More opportunities and resources are available year-round, including step-by-step guides in areas such as online game development. p. 16

In the short term, interest in coding is largely being driven by two perceived benefits. p. 16

artner organizations p. 16

Khan Academy p. 16

Codeacademy p. 16

First, p. 16

programming and the development of new technologies have been linked to economic growth, leading national governments to devise strategies for integrating coding early in students’ schooling.100 p. 16

CodeHS p. 16

Implications for Policy, Leadership, or Practice p. 16

Second p. 16

according to the European Commission, learning to code spurs the acquisition of 21st century skills such as creativity and computational thinking, which can be applied to many jobs.101 p. 16

Due to the significant role that computer science is playing in bolstering national economies and global competitiveness, governments are increasingly developing policies that support coding curricula. p. 16

US, President Obama’s Computer Science for All p. 16

current discussions about digital literacy center around learners leveraging technology to demonstrate their knowledge,103 p. 16

equip K-12 students with computational thinking skills p. 16

coding promises to move students from simply interacting p. 16

another goal of the initiative is to amplify outreach to minorities and underserved communities.108 p. 17

England p. 17

recently revised their ICT curriculum to emphasize programming p. 17

coding lessons developed for students as young as five years old.109 p. 17

requires leaders to think deeply about how low-income communities — areas struggling with digital equity, p. 17

can reap the benefits of coding. p. 17

Leading organizations are also addressing persistent gender disparities in coding, as interest in computer science significantly decreases for girls between ages 13-17. p. 17

in 1984, 37% of all computer science graduates were women, that percentage has dropped to 18% today.111 p. 17

Girls Who Code (GWC) p. 17

More schools are beginning to formally include coding in their classes and extracurricular organizations. p. 17

Students as Creators Short-Term Trend: Driving EdTech adoption in K-12 education for the next one to two years p. 18

"A shift is taking place all over the world as learners are exploring subject matter through the act of creation rather than the consumption of content." (p. 18) p. 18

classes to co-develop curriculum. p. 18

trend of empowering learners as creators is also driving a shift in how subject mastery is assessed toward more participatory methods in which students help define the competencies, goals, and skills they are working to achieve. p. 18

Digital tools, such as mobile apps with built-in analytics and adaptive learning platforms, can provide more opportunities for monitoring and tracking various steps within the context of hands-on learning activities so that the learning environment becomes more supportive of the creative process.121 p. 18

Many educators believe that honing these kinds of creative skills in learners can lead to deeply engaging learning experiences in which students become the authorities on subjects through investigation, storytelling, and production.116 p. 18

Other aspects of this trend p. 18

Free or affordable platforms including Socrative, Kahoot, Nearpod, and Google Forms can capture and store evidence of learning progress, while allowing them to provide constructive feedback that can refine students’ ideas, products, and processes.122 p. 18

game development, making, and programming p. 18

nurture learners as inventors and entrepreneurs p. 18

Collaboration, communication, information literacy, and global awareness are some examples of 21st century skills that can be defined and built into assessment; p. 18

essential that schools address the topic of fair use. p. 18

Overview p. 18

Educators can more comfortably design creative environments if they feel supported by school leaders in their capacity to experiment, improvise, and innovate. p. 18

Informal assessment can be embedded in daily classroom practice, with the goal of guiding students around self-reflection and selfevaluation p. 18

Implications for Policy, Leadership, or Practice p. 18

When educators are actively experimenting in the classroom, students in turn are more likely to confidently take creative risks themselves. p. 18

While access to internet-enabled technologies makes it easy for people to create media and products and share them with the world, there can be heavy legal repercussions such as lawsuits associated with fair use. p. 18

It is also important that educators provide opportunities for students to take ownership of their learning and depart from teacher-defined outcomes without being penalized.11 p. 18

fair use p. 18

To help students adopt the habit of setting personal learning goals, some educators are working with their p. 18

Schools can partner with other organizations to help them maximize the creative opportunities technology allows. p. 19

School leaders are also working to embed creativity and student voice into their missions and school cultures. p. 19

Big Picture Learning p. 19

60 schools across the US p. 19

offer self-directed learning programs in which each student creates their own curriculum p. 19

but as creators they must learn to properly evaluate and take advantage of credible resources to support their projects and goals. p. 19

The act of creating videos and other forms of media, including games, can also clarify complex subjects p. 19

In “Minecraft,” a popular digital game, students can create visual representations and simulations of concepts they are studying while learning problem-solving skills.131 p. 19

Creative tasks empower students as they gain confidence in applying knowledge toward real scenarios. p. 19

Significant Challenges Impeding Technology Adoption in K-12 Education p. 20

three categories defined by the nature of the challenge p. 20

solvable challenges p. 20

we both understand and know how to solve; p. 20

difficult challenges p. 20

more or less wellunderstood but for which solutions remain elusive; p. 20

Leadership. p. 20

wicked challenges p. 20

complex to even define, and thus require additional data and insights before solutions will be possible. p. 20

examined through three meta-expressions: p. 20

advancing digital equity is a difficult task that leaders are just beginning to address effectively. p. 20

policy p. 20

leadership p. 20

practice p. 20

Policy. p. 20

not all learners have sufficient access to high-speed broadband internet at home to complete assignments. p. 20

two specific challenges are driving policy decisions at many schools at the moment p. 20

greater rift between the have’s and have not’s, leaving K-12 stakeholders especially concerned about the Homework Gap p. 20

easiest one to address is creating policies that spur the development of more authentic learning experiences. p. 20

A framework drafted by Ontario Ministry of Education aims to catalyze more community-connected, experiential learning. p. 20

Ontario Ministry of Education's draft experiential learning framework! p. 20

Key to this government initiative is the philosophy that community partnerships can help students become global citizens who better understand how their skills can contribute to bolstering the economy.133 p. 20

wicked leadership challenge p. 20

the achievement gap that persists, in which low-income students and other underserved learner populations struggle to stay in school and graduate with skills that translate to gainful employment p. 20

A more difficult area is creating policies that transition teachers into the 21st century classroom role of guide and coach rather than lecturer. p. 20

Schools need ongoing leadership around devising solutions for disadvantaged students. p. 20

exacerbated by the rapidly evolving digital landscape in which educators are increasingly expected to be technologically savvy in order to instill digital literacy skills within their students. p. 20

Governments are tasked with understanding the kinds of support that teachers need to adopt student-centered pedagogies. p. 20

Practice. p. 21

Each of the six challenges identified by the expert panel presents numerous impediments for advancing teaching and learning in K-12 education, but two in particular are posing unique obstacles. p. 21

difficult p. 21

the act of scaling teaching innovations requires school cultures that encourage education professionals to experiment with and collaborate on new approaches. p. 21

Catering to each student by providing customized learning activities and support requires careful implementation and has been identified as a wicked challenge. p. 21

There is not yet consensus around what personalized learning means, and definitions are often nebulous. p. 21

growing host of technologies are enabling more individualized attention. p. 21

Adaptive platforms, for example, are viewed as a catalyst for personalizing learning. p. 21

Authentic Learning Experiences Solvable Challenge: Those that we understand and know how to solve p. 22

Authentic learning experiences (i.e. real-world problems and work situations) - still not pervasive in schools p. 22

One commonly seen approach to creating this connection is through the development of partnerships with local businesses, organizations, and public entities in the community. p. 22

these approaches include vocational training, apprenticeships, and certain scientific inquiries.139 p. 22

Advocates of authentic learning underscore the importance of metacognitive reflection and self-awareness as cornerstones.140 p. 22

schools have begun bridging the gap between academic knowledge and concrete applications p. 22

The apprenticeship, a historical model that has faded over time, is experiencing a resurgence as more schools see the value in creating vocational programming for students. p. 22

by establishing relationships with the broader community p. 22

active partnerships with local organizations p. 22

Overview p. 22

Authentic learning prepares students by equipping them with the skills needed to be successful in higher education and the workforce.142 p. 22

The trend toward deeper learning, featured earlier in this report, runs parallel to this challenge p. 22

both highlight the movement toward incorporating experiential and hands-on learning in schools. p. 22

solvable p. 22

recent post by Teach Thought notes that there are five major obstacles to incorporating real-world learning in schools: curriculum and content standards being too rigid; testing and accountability driving pedagogical decisions; schedules being too regimented and silos too restricting; educator practice requiring more risk-taking; and policy fostering a culture of achievement instead of teaching and learning.143 p. 22

Implications for Policy, Leadership, or Practice p. 22

policy fostering a culture of achievement instead of teaching and learning. p. 22

a Digital Promise survey found that one of the biggest challenges in K-12 education was creating realworld learning opportunities. p. 22

The Canadian government has created a policy framework draft for schools to generate more community-connected, experiential learning. p. 22

incorporating more authentic approaches such as challenge-based learning.144 p. 22

Ontario Ministry of Education believes that dynamic community partnerships should serve as a foundational experience for students to cultivate citizenship as well as the knowledge and skills needed for students to succeed personally and economically.14 p. 22

dynamic community partnerships should serve as a foundational experience for students p. 22

Connecting to Ontario Ministry of Education's draft framework for entrepreneurial p. 22

England p. 22

proposed legislation p. 22

Department for Education p. 22

opportunities for apprenticeships by requiring schools to collaborate with training providers and technical colleges.150 p. 23

OECD and European Commission publication Entrepreneurial School p. 23

describes the elements of entrepreneurial education in schools with particular attention to learning environments, the changing roles of educators, and how schools collaborate with surrounding organizations. p. 23

explain that schools can benefit from community partnerships because they provide additional resources for students such as professional expertise and access to costly engineering tools.151 p. 23

Citizen science, which involves a partnership between volunteers, amateurs, and trained scientists, is viewed as one way to offer students authentic learning experiences in community awareness, scientific inquiry, critical thinking, and problem-solving.153 p. 23

Rethinking the Roles of Teachers Solvable Challenge: Those that we understand and know how to solve p. 24

"...teachers' primary responsibilities are shifting from providing expert-level knowledge to constructing learning environments that help students' gain 21st century skills including creative inquiry and digital literacy." (p. 24) p. 24

Schools are challenged to create agile environments that support the development of professional learning networks where educators can seek guidance and inspiration from peers around the globe as they rethink their pedagogies and curricula.164 p. 24

Educators are now acting as guides and mentors, modeling responsible global citizenship and motivating students to adopt lifelong learning habits by providing opportunities for students to direct their own learning trajectories.158 p. 24

teacher education programs, lacking curriculum flexibility amid state-mandated requirements, often gloss over digital learning strategies and the use of technology to enable individualized learning pathways in the classroom. p. 24

Hiring practices that do not reflect technology’s central role in education are compounding this challenge: p. 24

changing the ways teachers engage in their own continuing professional development, much of which involves social media, collaboration with other educators both inside and outside their schools, and online tools and resources. p. 24

Pre-service teacher training programs are also challenged to equip educators with digital competencies amid other professional requirements to ensure classroom readiness. p. 24

Teachers are now tasked with changing their leadership style from directive to consultative and involving students in planning, implementation, and assessment.166 p. 24

Overview p. 24

As detailed in the Deeper Learning Approaches and Collaborative Learning topics of this report, schools are increasingly incorporating activities that foster active learning and promote problem-solving skills p. 24

Teachers’ duties are changing to embrace a role of curating and facilitating learning experiences and encouraging student exploration to discover passions.159 p. 24

Continuing professional development will also be instrumental in helping teachers fulfill students’ emerging needs as technology-enabled education practices continue to evolve.168 p. 24

encouraging student exploration p. 24

rise of blended and online learning is contributing to this shift;160 p. 24

wealth of content available online, teachers are no longer expected to serve as the sole authoritative source of information in the classroom. p. 24

traditional responsibilities remain within teachers’ purview, including assessment, discipline, and classroom management, educators are now expected to incorporate technology into their pedagogical strategies to meet the needs of 21st century learners.162 p. 24

Implications for Policy, Leadership, or Practice p. 24

Government action will be key to helping educators keep pace with 21st century learners. p. 24

OECD survey revealed that Australian teachers on average partake in just nine days of continuing professional development each year.170 p. 24

government initiative in partnership with two universities p. 24

Queensland’s Department of Education and Training will sponsor “Developing Our Teachers,” p. 25

Ireland’s Department of Education and Skills’ “Digital Strategies for Schools 2015-2020” document p. 25

promoting the use of ICT to form communities of practice p. 25

The strategies acknowledge the continuum of skill levels possessed by in-service teachers and recommend a variety of approaches to meet educator needs.172 p. 25

Education-focused organizations and agencies are joining forces to design solutions that help teachers manage their evolving roles. p. 25

European Schoolnet, a network of 31 European Ministries of Education, has created the Teacher Academy,173 p. 25

a resource offering inperson training opportunities, free online courses, and teaching materials in multiple languages. p. 25

How can Learn Teach Lead (http://learnteachlead.ca/) and TeachOntario (https://www.teachontario.ca/)be leveraged? p. 25

T PA C K p. 25

The National Technology Leadership Coalition, a US-based consortium that fosters cross-disciplinary collaboration around education technology and educator preparation, has created the Practitioner’s Guide to TPACK p. 25

Efforts are underway to help educators transform their teaching practices, enabled by technology. p. 25

Advancing Digital Equity Difficult Challenge: Those that we understand but for which solutions are elusive p. 26

"Digital equity referst o uneven access to high-speed broadband, a rampant social justice issue that is not just impacting developing nations." (p. 26) p. 26

As K-12 learning activities more frequently take place online, particularly in flipped classroom and other blended learning models,186 there are greater expectations around students’ ability to engage in projects and assignments outside of school, and particularly at home. This notion is only exacerbating the age-old premise of the haves and have-nots. p. 26

While more schools are benefiting from improved internet connectivity,180 the growing pervasiveness of blended learning approaches is illuminating new gaps between those with and without high-speed broadband; especially in countries that emphasize homework, students are increasingly expected to engage in learning activities outside of the classroom. p. 26

For students from economically disadvantaged households, the availability of broadband and sufficient computing devices is not a given. This facet of digital equity is also referred to as the Homework Gap,181 and solving this challenge will take concerted efforts between policymakers and school leaders. p. 26

US, President Obama p. 26

ConnectALL initiative p. 26

internet and technology providers p. 26

Google p. 26

In developing nations, obtaining high-speed internet access is secondary to addressing more drastic challenges, such as a lack of electricity.190 p. 26

gigabit fiber connectivity.182 p. 26

Overview p. 26

connectivity challenges persist globally. p. 26

Growth of high-speed broadband is not evenly distributed p. 26

Without high-speed internet access, successful scaling of emerging technologies in education is moot. p. 26

Implications for Policy, Leadership, or Practice p. 26

US Department of Education updated its National Education Technology Plan in 2015 p. 26

address p. 26

digital equity concerns. p. 27

redesigning of teacher training programs to support incoming teachers with creative ways to use technology to bolster their levels of proficiency while ensuring fair access to the internet regardless of students’ socioeconomic backgrounds. p. 27

ConnectHome, another Obama administration initiative p. 27

While governments continue to develop digital equity strategies, internet providers are also stepping up. p. 27

Despite progress, only 2.9 billion people of the 7.2 billion world population are connected to the internet p. 27

Facebook is leading work to increase global access to online learning resources.197 p. 27

Facebook’s not-for-profit arm, Internet. org, launched an app in Zambia and Ghana that can be embedded in most basic mobile phones, making resources including Wikipedia, Google Search, BBC News, and the Mobile Alliance for Maternal Action available to all users.198 p. 27

advocacy organizations such as CoSN aim to bridge the Homework Gap. Their Digital Equity Action Toolkit provides education leaders in highpoverty districts with timely information to expand technology use in out-of-school learning.199 p. 27

Barriers to advancing digital equity are exacerbated as schools adopt flipped classroom approaches that rely on high-speed internet connectivity at home. p. 27

resourceful schools are overcoming these obstacles by providing students with greater flexibility and alternative places to do their homework. p. 27

Scaling Teaching Innovations Difficult Challenge: Those that we understand but for which solutions are elusive p. 28

outcomes, they are slow to gain traction.207 p. 28

several obstacles in deploying PBL approaches p. 28

approaches are currently too bespoke in nature, there are not enough opportunities to share successes, p. 28

lack of professional development opportunities.208 p. 28

test results, and teachers are not frequently rewarded for innovative approaches and improvements in teaching and learning, much less allowed to scale and replicate these breakthroughs. p. 28

Scaling pedagogical innovation requires adequate funding, capable leadership, strong evaluation practices, and the removal of restrictive policies — a tall order for the majority of K-12 public schools, which are receiving fewer resources.202 p. 28

many teachers are not prepared to lead innovative, effective practices, and there is a kaleidoscope of systemic factors that must be addressed to resolve this complex issue.203 p. 28

Brookings Institute report Millions Learning p. 28

Overview p. 28

they explain that successful amplification happens when pilots are properly incubated and then spread to reach more youth p. 28

Scaling teaching innovations is an especially difficult challenge because variables such as teachers’ content preparation, students’ self-efficacy, and prior academic achievement vary across different contexts and significantly impact the effectiveness of educational interventions.204 p. 28

Margins vary, but can include governments providing school officials freedom to experiment or community movements intended to provide greater access to learners whose educational options are limited. p. 28

Additionally, schools and districts often run into obstacles when implementing new pedagogies across the board p. 28

Optimal conditions in which innovation can proliferate include planning growth from the outset, understanding the operational realities of delivery, financing in a flexible and stable manner, and creating an enabling policy environment.212 p. 28

financial issues are often cited as the main challenge to growing teaching innovations. p. 28

Implications for Policy, Leadership, or Practice p. 28

Policies that support innovation in teaching, although rare, are paving the way for states and districts to scale novel models of instruction. p. 28

evidence indicates that the broad implementation of pedagogies, p. 28

such as project-based learning p. 28

improve student engagement and p. 28

On a global level, many initiatives cite the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education as a main driver for the development of educational transformation policies.215 p. 29

By 2030, the UN aims to ensure that all children can complete free, equitable, and quality education with relevant and effective outcomes.216 p. 29

Recognizing and assisting schools that have successfully scaled teaching innovations is a crucial part of addressing this challenge. p. 29

Some school districts are prioritizing educational transformation by creating new departments or partnering with organizations to help stimulate and support grassroots innovation on campuses. p. 29

Imaginarium, for example, is Denver Public School’s official innovation lab p. 29

Using design thinking backed by research, they work directly with students, educators, and administrators to take initiatives from idea to implementation stage with an eye toward scaling.220 p. 29

In Canada, the Toronto District School Board has partnered with the MaRS Solutions Lab p. 29

In Canada, the Toronto District School Board has partnered with the MaRS Solutions Lab, an organization that helps scale innovative solutions to the world’s most pressing problems, to promote experiential and self-directed learning. p. 29

Connection to TDSB + MaRS Solutions Lab! p. 29

Achievement Gap Wicked Challenge: Those that are complex to even define, much less address p. 30

"The achievement gap refers to an observed disparity in academic performance between student groups, especially as defined by socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, or gender." (p. 30) p. 30

AG excerbated by environmental factors (i.e. peer pressure, student tracking, negative stereotyping, test bias) p. 30

Other inequities based on gender with roots in K-12 education include the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. p. 30

Adaptive and personalized learning technologies are beginning to play a more integral role in identifying lower-performing students and student populations, helping educators and leaders understand contributing factors, and enabling and scaling targeted intervention methods and engagement strategies that help close the gap. p. 30

East Asian economies, including Shanghai, Singapore, Hong Kong, and South Korea, have scored in the top ten globally in terms of student achievement as measured by the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA); yet they also have lower proportions of underperforming students, indicating that improving learning for low performers does not come at the expense of average or top performers. p. 30

Researchers have identified within these jurisdictions a commitment to holding all students to the same high standards. p. 30

Overview p. 30

relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and student achievement.225 p. 30

Equally important are the timely interventions provided to lower-performing students, avoiding the compounding effects of falling behind that cause motivation loss.233 p. 30

Personalized learning technologies also have potential to help address the achievement gap by enabling teachers to better identify students who need individualized help. p. 30

education funding initiatives designed to raise all student outcomes across the board are not tailored to address the needs of specific underperforming student populations.227 p. 30

Progressive systems that provide more funding to higher-need schools can help correct this imbalance. p. 30

Progressive systems that provide more funding to higher-need schools can help correct this imbalance. p. 30

20-year longitudinal study by the US Educational Testing Service p. 30

Implications for Policy, Leadership, or Practice p. 30

investment in lower student-teacher ratios and higher teacher wages resulted in schools with smaller achievement gaps and better educational outcomes for low-SES students.228 p. 30

Ongoing conflict in countries in the Middle East and North Africa has resulted in a lack of access to education for nearly 4.5 million children. In the Arab world, girls do not have equal opportunity to attend school, particularly in Djibouti, Sudan, and Yemen.229 p. 30

Other education systems have also addressed achievement disparities through targeted funding to increase resources for lowperforming students p. 31

Leadership efforts must pool resources and facilitate dialogs that increase awareness of these issues and move best practices into implementation in order to make progress on reducing the achievement gap. p. 31

High expectations for all students can minimize disparities among student groups. p. 31

Personalizing Learning Wicked Challenge: Those that are complex to even define, much less address p. 32

"Personalized learning refers to the range of educational programs, learning experiences, instructional approaches, and academic support strategies intended to address sthe specific learning needs, interests, aspirations, or cultural bakcgrounds of individual students." (p. 32) p. 32

measure success of personalized learning programs.252 p. 32

Teachers require evidence-based frameworks and professional development opportunities to effectively build curricula around individualized pathways. p. 32

increasing focus on customizing instruction to meet students’ unique needs is driving the development of new technologies that provide more learner choice and allow for differentiated content delivery. p. 32

development of personalized learning technologies is largely being steered by suppliers, while many schools are still in the midst of identifying their needs. p. 32

online learning environments p. 32

adaptive learning technologies p. 32

possible to support students’ individual pathways. p. 32

Textbook publishing companies are rebranding as learning management companies to offer smart products that play an active role in students’ learning.25 p. 32

major barrier is a lack of infrastructure within school systems to support dissemination of personalized learning technologies at scale p. 32

developers must work closely with educators to ensure personalized learning tools are in service of improving learning outcomes for a diverse array of students.255 p. 32

Compounding the challenge is the notion that technology alone is not the whole solution; personalized learning efforts must incorporate effective pedagogy and include teachers in the development process.195 p. 32

Schools also need data and research that demonstrate efficacy of strategies in order to help them select effective supporting technologies. p. 32

he philanthropic sector is working alongside major companies to fill these gaps. p. 32

Overview p. 32

Personalized learning fosters a student-centered environment, empowering them to take charge of their learning trajectories with practices that nurture habits of lifelong learning p. 32

Facebook, p. 32

teacher feedback is continuously incorporated to improve the offering, with the goal of eventually giving the software away to other schools.256 p. 32

This challenge is particularly wicked as the field has not yet reached consensus on a definition:244 personalized learning can best be understood as an umbrella term for methods that enable students to achieve content mastery at an individualized pace.245 p. 32

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation p. 32

Bill Gates has also indicated that as artificial intelligence advances, these capabilities can be incorporated into personalized learning software to provide students with additional interactivity that promotes deep learning.258 p. 32

competency-based learning,247 adaptive learning,248 p. 32

blended learning.249 p. 32

have potential to advance equity in education by enabling educators to connect with historically underserved populations, increasing motivation and engagement by helping students understand their own learning.250 p. 32

deep learning p. 32

Implications for Policy, Leadership, or Practice p. 32

scaling personalized learning remains an elusive goal, policymakers are recognizing the value of moving from one-size-fits-all learning models. p. 32

access to high-speed internet is not equally distributed across schools, hindering efforts to scale personalized learning across K-12.251 p. 32

US p. 32

Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) p. 32

authorizes states and districts to implement personalized learning approaches to create more flexible learning environments. p. 32

wide variety of strategies and technologies contribute to the difficulty in defining metrics to p. 32

International Association for K–12 Online Learning (iNACOL) p. 33

recently published a report detailing exemplars of state-level policies that facilitate the spread of personalized learning. p. 33

Successful strategies being implemented include p. 33

taskforces to pinpoint roadblocks, pilot programs and planning grants to test new instructional models, redesigned assessment and accountability standards, and the creation of multiple pathways to graduation through competencybased approaches.260 p. 33

education leaders need to recognize best practices for adoption p. 33

Education Scotland’s toolkit helps educators holistically integrate personalized learning through planning, assessment, and progress tracking processes.261 p. 33

National Improvement Hub contains resources, research, and assessment tools,262 p. 33

Digital Learning Community (DLC) serves as a collaborative space to support sharing of teaching and learning practices. p. 33

A project of the Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore will pilot an adaptive learning platform for mathematics instruction in area schools. Dashboards provide teachers with real-time learning analytics data on student progress on an individual and classroom level, helping instructors maximize the usefulness of in-person instruction. p. 33

CICS Irving Park, a charter elementary school in Chicago, p. 33

implementing a comprehensive personalized learning program that leverages individual learner profiles, growth mindset principles, and technology-enabled learning environments to promote academic and socialemotional success for all students.266 p. 33

2016 Breakthrough Schools Chicago program p. 33

EDUCAUSE’s Next Generation Learning Challenge p. 33

Important Developments in Educational Technology for K-12 Education p. 34

seven categories of technologies, tools, and strategies for their use that the NMC monitors continuously. p. 34

three time-related categories p. 34

near-term developments in technology that are expected to achieve widespread adoption in one year or less p. 34

mid-term developments that will take two to three years; p. 34

far-term developments which are forecasted to enter the mainstream of education within four to five years p. 34

Collectively, the categories serve as lenses for thinking about innovation p. 34

>Consumer technologies p. 34

tools created for recreational and professional purposes and were not designed, at least initially, for educational use p. 34

find their ways into institutions because people are using them at home or in other settings. p. 34

> Digital strategies p. 34

ways of using devices and software to enrich teaching and learning, whether inside or outside of the classroom p. 34

transcend conventional ideas to create something that feels new, meaningful, and 21st century. p. 34

A key criterion for the inclusion of a new technology development in this edition p. 34

its potential relevance to teaching, learning, and creative inquiry in K-12 education. p. 34

> Enabling technologies p. 34

expand the reach of our tools, make them more capable and useful, and often easier to use as well. p. 34

> Internet technologies p. 35

> Visualization technologies p. 35

un the gamut from simple infographics to complex forms of visual data analysis. p. 35

techniques and essential infrastructure that help to make the technologies underlying how we interact with the network more transparent, less obtrusive, and easier to use. p. 35

tap the brain’s inherent ability to rapidly process visual information, identify patterns, and sense order in complex situations. p. 35

> Learning technologies p. 35

tools and resources developed expressly for the education sector p. 35

pathways of development that may include tools adapted from other purposes that are matched with strategies to make them useful for learning p. 35

>Social media technologies p. 35

Makerspaces Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less p. 36

China’s Ministry of Science and Technology has pledged to invest $313 million into research and development of 3D printing technologies.276 p. 36

US Department of Education’s CTE Makeover Challenge will provide high schools with funding and expert design assistance to create makerspaces where students develop technical skills and explore STEM career pathways.278 p. 36

makerspaces, physical environments that offer tools and opportunities for hands-on learning and creation. p. 36

Educators are increasingly using makerspaces and maker activities as a method for engaging learners in creative, higher-order problem-solving through design, construction, and iteration.269 p. 36

Google p. 36

Making & Science initiative, Google has partnered with Stanford University’s FabLearn program to fund academic research on the efficacy of making in education and create a classroom makerspace model that meets the needs of budget-constrained schools.279 p. 36

explore design thinking approaches p. 36

Makerspaces are also increasing student exposure to STEM subjects and technical disciplines. p. 36

The maker movement also provides an opportunity for youth to apply creative skills to solve problems at local and global levels. p. 36

AT&T and the Imagination Foundation recently sponsored the Inventor’s Challenge, a worldwide contest for K-12 students to spur innovation within the STEAM disciplines. p. 36

Overview p. 36

Makerspaces are informal workshop environments located in community facilities or education institutions where people immerse themselves in creative making and tinkering activities. p. 36

Hong Kong’s MakerBay, a makerspace with a focus on social justice and environmentally friendly projects, offers the Impact Inventor Entrepreneurship Incubation Program. p. 36

valuable skills cultivated during handson activities, including problem-solving, critical thinking, patience, and resilience.27 p. 36

Developing these aptitudes through creative play helps students become better equipped to meet the needs of the future workplace.272 p. 36

maker movement and makerspaces are closely related to other educational trends such as collaborative learning, project-based learning, and student-directed learning.273 p. 36

Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry p. 36

Mobile makerspaces enable resource-challenged schools to incorporate making with limited investment and garner support among teachers, administrators, and parents p. 36

learners can identify new passions and become more motivated as they connect classroom lessons to real-world outcomes.274 p. 36

Governments and major companies have recognized the value of making in creating healthy economies and fostering innovation in the next-generation workforce. p. 36

Building Miniature Makerspaces go.nmc.org/minimake p. 37

Iona Presentation Primary School to Launch Makerspace go.nmc.org/iona p. 37

Makerspace activities are increasingly serving as gateways to bolster interest in STEM fields. p. 37

President Unveils New Initiatives During National Week of Making go.nmc.org/makerprom p. 37

Schools are discovering new methods for assessing student progress and aligning curriculum standards with making activities. p. 37

British Columbia’s Surrey School District has adopted digital portfolios to capture learning outcomes in makerspaces. Using the FreshGrade app, students upload photos and videos of their work and engage in reflective thinking and writing p. 37

Makerspaces in Practice p. 37

Online Learning Time-to-Adoption Horizon: One Year or Less p. 38

Hybrid schools combine online and face-to-face instruction, and they are generally either offshoots of full-time online schools or derive from alternative education programs targeted towards at-risk students.295 p. 38

An aspect of digital learning, which encompasses blended learning approaches, online learning has experienced a significant surge as more than 2.7 million students in the US alone are taking part.289 p. 38

As online learning matures in schools worldwide, best practices have emerged; however, research indicates that more progress is needed to improve student success rates. p. 38

many believe that online learning can be an effective catalyst for thoughtful discussion on all pedagogical practice.290 p. 38

In Canada, a joint research study concerning students in rural and remote regions found that online learning was problematic without proper school-based scaffolding and recommended an onsite facilitator that could serve as a liaison between the student and other stakeholders.297 p. 38

major online learning trends include more project-based learning, personalized learning, and interactivity.291 p. 38

in the case of virtual and blended schools, researchers note that policy needs to keep pace with the changing landscape. p. 38

Overview p. 38

Some attribute the acceleration of online learning to widespread 1:1 deployment and the impact of the Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) movement.292 p. 38

Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry p. 38

With greater technology access, they assert that online learning is already a daily activity in many US schools, particularly for creating digital artifacts, accessing open educational resources, and leveraging adaptive learning tools. p. 38

Through developments in massively open online courses (MOOCs) in the past few years and frank conversations about the mixed results, educators have quickly realized that online learning must go beyond providing access to lectures.299 p. 38

The variety of current online learning use cases is highlighted in the report Keeping Pace with K-12 Digital Learning. p. 38

Connected Learning Initiative go.nmc.org/mitco p. 39

A major benefit of online learning is that coursework can be undertaken anywhere and at any time. p. 39

Introducing Project-Based Learning in Your Classroom go.nmc.org/teacad p. 39

flipped classroom p. 39

flipped classroom structure where students engage with videos, podcasts, and interactive forums at home p. 39

gained popularity in recent years p. 39

freeing up class time for deeper discussions and immersive learning activities.303 p. 39

Credit recovery, retaking courses to make up credits lost due to failing grades, is becoming a popular option in schools. While online credit recovery results versus traditional face-toface instruction are mixed, there is much experimentation underway. p. 39

iNACOL notes that online credit recovery can motivate students to learn at their own pace, integrate individualized learning preferences and interests into curricula, and address mobility issues should a student move from one school in the district to another.306 p. 39

Online Learning in Practice p. 39

APICE go.nmc.org/apice p. 39

Robotics Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years p. 40

As such, schools are increasingly teaching programming as an integral skill, with pilots illuminating best practices for positive learning outcomes.31 p. 40

Tufts University, 60 children enrolled in pre-kindergarten through second grade participated in an eight-week robotics curriculum to gain foundational knowledge and coding. p. 40

The global robot population is expected to double to four million by 2020 — a shift that will impact business models and economies worldwide,308 with a projected market value of $135 billion in 2019.309 p. 40

KIWI robotics kits p. 40

CHERP programming blocks p. 40

While robotics is two to three years away from mainstream adoption in K-12 education, potential uses are gaining traction for hands-on learning, particularly in STEM disciplines. p. 40

Classes and outreach programs are incorporating robotics and programming to promote critical and computational thinking as well as problem-solving among students. p. 40

Robotics is also increasing access to education for students who are homebound or live in rural communities. p. 40

Emerging studies also show that interaction with humanoid robots can help learners with spectrum disorders develop better communication and social skills.310 p. 40

Another area where robotics has demonstrated success is administering special education, specifically for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) p. 40

Overview p. 40

University of Toronto study on the use of playful robots in language practice concluded that robots’ low stimulus levels and predictable behaviors can help children with ASD develop communication skills.317 p. 40

Robots are not just designed for automating activities that would require manual effort from workers; they also enable people to simulate, observe, and make sense of complex scenarios. p. 40

RobotsLab BOX p. 40

Advancements in artificial intelligence, a topic featured later in this report, are greatly expanding the capabilities of these machines, making it possible for them to act intelligently, improvising and adapting their reactions and functionalities as they learn from experiences p. 40

Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry p. 40

Robotics is a natural fit for makerspaces and other creation-centric environments where students are encouraged to invent and prototype p. 40

In addition to engaging with robots, children are learning vital p. 40

computer science skills as they program them. p. 41

Robotics Academy go.nmc.org/thera p. 41

Vermont Robot Rodeo go.nmc.org/verm p. 41

Major governmentfunded organizations are also investing in initiatives that usher in the next generation of robotics engineers. p. 41

In order for robotics to gain traction in K-12, teachers and staff need to be properly trained on how to operate any hardware and software as well as best practices for integrating it into curricula.325 p. 41

Robotics in Practice p. 41

Pepper Enrolls at a School in Japan go.nmc.org/pepper p. 41

Virtual Reality Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years p. 42

with a primary focus on gaming, video, and photo experiences, tether to computers and contain a pair of screens and lenses that generate a stereoscopic 3D image as well as sensors that monitor users’ movements 337 to adjust the images accordingly. p. 42

smartphone users have seen an influx of lowcost VR options p. 42

more authentically “feel” the objects in these displays through gesture-based and haptic devices, which provide tactile information through force feedback. p. 42

Samsung Gear VR and Google Cardboard both leverage smartphones’ built-in screens and sensors. p. 42

While VR has compelling implications for learning, to date, it has been most prominently used for military training. p. 42

In the K-12 sector, VR is well-positioned as an educational tool, generating immersive environments for field trips,339 with simulation and research activities serving as a prime enabler of student-centered, experiential, and collaborative learning.340 p. 42

VR is becoming more mainstream, especially in video games.329 p. 42

simulation and research activities p. 42

head-mounted displays make game environments and actions more lifelike.3 p. 42

games and natural user interfaces are finding applications in classrooms, VR can make learning simulations more authentic. p. 42

Overview p. 42

Virtual reality delivers immersive, simulated worlds, enabling complete focus on content without distractions. p. 42

A compelling method for storytelling, VR allows users to feel the experience throughout their bodies.332 p. 42

Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry p. 42

By fostering more engaged and authentic learning opportunities, VR can overcome shortcomings in STEM education including a reliance on theory and lack of concrete experiences.344 p. 42

virtual lab. p. 42

Authentic experiences in VR can also stimulate students’ interest in STEM careers. p. 42

Oculus Rift and HTC Vive headsets, designed p. 42

Meet the Start-Up That Wants to Send You to Space (Virtually) go.nmc.org/SpaceVR p. 43

Nearpod, a software company that provides a marketplace of interactive educational activities, recently enhanced their platform with VR content developed in collaboration with 360 Cities, a panoramic photography company.348 The first publically available VR tool for schools349 enables teachers to integrate VR components into their lessons.350 p. 43

Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Education go.nmc.org/vrarspain p. 43

360 Cities p. 43

Virtual Reality: The Next Leap to Human Learning go.nmc.org/MindCET p. 43

leverage Nearpod’s VR activities. p. 43

VR engages students in a fun and exciting way that increases retention. p. 43

2015, schools in Australia, Brazil, New Zealand, the UK, and the US began collaborating with Google to beta-test Expeditions, an educational VR platform that allows users to experience over 200 virtual destinations complete with descriptions, talking points, and questions.352 p. 43

Google Street View p. 43

The beta program enabled one million students in 11 countries to participate in virtual field trips. Expeditions is now freely available on Android, with an iOS version launching soon.355 p. 43

Virtual Reality in Practice p. 43

Artificial Intelligence Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years p. 44

an overarching goal of this technology is to bolster productivity and engagement, better supporting the global workforce and individuals in their daily lives based on even the most subtle gestures.362 p. 44

Neural networks p. 44

Neural networks, a significant area of AI research, is currently proving to be valuable for more natural user interfaces through voice recognition and natural language processing, allowing humans to interact with machines similarly to how they interact with each other p. 44

This makes AI promising for education, especially as teaching and learning increasingly take place online. p. 44

Education institutions have become key incubators for developing new AI technology. p. 44

neural networks model the biological function of animal brains to interpret and react to specific inputs such as words and tone of voice.357 p. 44

AI has the potential to enhance online learning, adaptive learning software, and simulations in ways that more intuitively respond to and engage with students. p. 44

Overview p. 44

Today, perhaps the most popular incarnations of AI have materialized in a growing host of virtual assistants, including Alexa, Cortana, and Siri. p. 44

the benchmark for machine intelligence has been the Turing Test, which requires that a human be unable to distinguish the machine from another human in natural language conversations and real-world situations.358 p. 44

Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry p. 44

1997 after IBM’s advent of Deep Blue, the first computer to ever beat a chess grandmaster p. 44

2011 when IBM’s Watson defeated two Jeopardy! champions.359 p. 44

AI as it is embedded in adaptive learning platforms, in which intelligent software personalizes learning experiences based on how each student is responding to prompts and progressing through videos and readings in virtual environments.365 p. 44

March 2016, Google’s AI program AlphaGo defeated a world champion in the notoriously complex ancient Chinese game “Go.” p. 44

This event marked a significant milestone in the field of AI and the ability for software to engage in deep learning — algorithms that enable machines to learn from experience.360 p. 44

As students spend more time with the platform, the machine gets to know them better p. 44

deep learning p. 44

allowing it to deliver more tailored content and recommendations over time p. 44

Artificial Intelligence in Special Education go.nmc.org/aispec p. 45

Cognii, p. 45

leverages AI and natural language processing to identify knowledge gaps in K-12 students through short essay responses and provide real-time guidance towards concept mastery.366 p. 45

Ultimately, adaptive platforms conduct individual assessments and deliver tailored content and support, emphasizing subject areas where students need more work to achieve mastery. p. 45

Geekie go.nmc.org/geekie p. 45

AI is at least five years away from widespread use in global K-12 education, more sophisticated learning applications are just beginning to emerge. p. 45

Chatbots are one form of AI that can potentially support students as they grapple with challenges p. 45

Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Remote Laboratories Platform go.nmc.org/inteltu p. 45

chatbots as personal, virtual tutors that could facilitate more opportunities for real-time interaction and feedback.367 p. 45

Pearson’s recent report “Intelligence Unleashed” surmises that the extensive, customized feedback cultivated by AI software could eventually eliminate the need for traditional testing.368 p. 45

The authors make the case that education systems must evolve as AI advances. p. 45

AI has tremendous potential to enhance creative inquiry and informal learning. p. 45

Advancements in image recognition and natural language processing promise to reduce the amount of time people spend finding pertinent information.370 p. 45

AI recognizes users based on their previously specified interests and quickly returns fine-tuned data that will be most useful to them. p. 45

the technology itself is now constantly building its knowledge of the people who are using it. p. 45

Artificial Intelligence in Practice p. 45

Wearable Technology Time-to-Adoption Horizon: Four to Five Years p. 46

smart devices p. 46

relationships between their bodies and surrounding environments. p. 46

Zenta, a wellness bracelet p. 46

the device aims to help users identify stress triggers and balance physical and emotional needs; for example, an erratic sleeping pattern will prompt the Zenta to suggest yoga or relaxation techniques.382 p. 46

convenient integration of tools into users’ everyday lives, allowing seamless tracking of personal data such as sleep, movement, location, and social media interactions. p. 46

the Muse, a sensor-equipped headband, provides real-time biofeedback and guiding audio cues to improve users’ meditation practices. p. 46

Head-mounted wearable displays such as Oculus Rift and Google Cardboard facilitate immersive virtual reality experiences.371 p. 46

University researchers are using the Muse in pedagogical experiments that explore connections between brain activity and educational outcomes.383 p. 46

oday’s wearables not only track where people go, what they do, and how much time they spend doing it, but now what their aspirations are and when those can be accomplished.372 p. 46

K-12 classrooms could see devices that connect mental and physical variables with academic performance. p. 46

This category also has potential to interest a variety of students in STEAM learning, p. 46

Wearable technologies help users adjust their behaviors to achieve goals. p. 46

quantified self movement p. 46

Overview p. 46

wearable technology products that allow people to monitor data and accomplish tasks. p. 46

Schools are also introducing wearables into physical education (PE) classes to personalize the curriculum through real-time feedback and grades based on individual skill mastery. p. 46

Virtual reality-enabled headsets, a major subset of this category, are covered elsewhere in this report p. 46

Minnesota’s Westonka School District use the Heart Zones System, p. 46

consumers may find increased location-specific personalization based on user behavior patterns.378 p. 46

educators have found that the wearables help students develop motivation and have increased engagement.385 p. 46

future of wearables will move toward implantables, or devices directly imbedded in human bodies.379 p. 46

Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry p. 46

Wearables can fulfill a number of achievements under Australia’s new national technologies curriculum, which directs schools to create learning opportunities where students engage in design thinking and use technology to develop solutions to current and future needs.386 p. 46

Technavio has pinpointed decreasing prices of wearable technologies as a growth driver alongside wearables’ potential to ignite student passions and foster creative, hands-on learning activities.381 p. 46

include devices that not only measure and record data, but also incorporate responsive assistance, helping individuals understand p. 46

continuing professional development opportunities will p. 46

Adidas Brings Fitness Tracking to Schoolchildren go.nmc.org/adizone p. 47

help educators discover additional ideas for integrating wearables into project-based and active learning environments.388 p. 47

Schools can also look to wearables that meet the needs of flexible classroom configurations. p. 47

EAGER: MAKER go.nmc.org/trackmake p. 47

Many leaders have recognized that wearable technologies and the maker movement provide a gateway to increase girls’ interest in STEM disciplines. p. 47

female founders of Jewelbots, a company offering programmable friendship bracelets that help girls learn to code, have stated that the goal of their product is to steer more young women into STEM careers by making technology fun.390 p. 47

Middle School Girls Design Wearable Technology go.nmc.org/steamgirls p. 47

Educators can harness the networked power of wearables to teach students about their role in the global community. p. 47

UNICEF has furnished fitness trackers to 6,000 Chicago elementary students to incentivize exercise with the ability to save lives. Students’ steps are tracked as points, redeemable for food packets delivered to malnourished children worldwide. p. 47

UNICEF’s Wearables for Good campaign p. 47

Innovations in wearable technologies can also transform education for disabled students. p. 47

SignAloud, smart gloves that translate American Sign Language communications into speech or text via Bluetooth. p. 47

Wearable Technology in Practice p. 47