Global competency for an inclusive world




address = {Paris, France},
author = {OECD},
date-added = {2016-09-16 16:39:11 -0400},
date-modified = {2016-10-04 14:28:18 -0400},
date-read = {2016-10-04 14:28:18 -0400},
institution = {OECD},
keywords = {21st century competencies; 21st century competencies assessment; PISA; environmental scanning},
read = {1},
title = {Global competency for an inclusive world},
url = {},
year = {2016},


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Facing unprecedented challenges and opportunities, this generation requires new capacitie p. 1

communication with sensitivity to multiple perspectives and that global competence should equip young people not just to understand but to act. p. 1

young people need to collaborate with others from different disciplines and cultures, in a way that solves complex problems and creates economic and social value. They need to bring judgment and action to difficult situations in which people’s beliefs and perspectives are at odds. They need to identify cultural traits and biases and to recognise that their own understanding of the world is inevitably partial. p. 1

The greatest of these is the need to find a new concept of growth. p. 1

Curricula will need to be comprehensive, interdisciplinary and responsive to an explosion of scientific and technological knowledge. p. 1

Global Competence includes the acquisition of in-depth knowledge and understanding of global and intercultural issues; the ability to learn from and live with people from diverse backgrounds; and the attitudes and values necessary to interact respectfully with others. p. 1

PISA Governing Board decided to explore an assessment of Global Competence in the 2018 PISA assessment. p. 1

The driving ideas are that global trends are complex and require careful investigation, that cross-cultural engagement should balance clear p. 1

asking 15-year-old students in around 80 countries p. 1

cross-cultural engagement p. 1

Global Competence is only one dimension of what people will need to learn; the OECD is looking at a broader range of dimensions in The Future of Education and Skills: an OECD Education 2030 Framework p. 2

emphasis on attitudes and values is novel in comparative assessment. p. 2

The Future of Education and Skills: an OECD Education 2030 Framework p. 2

knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and competencies required for the 2030 world p. 2

The Future of Education and Skills: OECD Education 2030 Framework p. 2

initial focus would be school curricula, at secondary level p. 2

Four propositions are integral to the 2030 Framework: p. 2

traditional disciplinary curriculum should be rapidly accelerated to create knowledge and understanding for the 21st century. p. 2

skills, attitudes and values that shape human behaviour should be rethought, to counter the discriminatory behaviours picked up at school and in the family p. 2

essential element of modern learning is the ability to reflect on the way one learns best p. 2

Each learner should strive to achieve a small set of key competences p. 2

A competence is the ability to mobilise knowledge, skills, attitudes and values, alongside a reflective approach to the processes of learning, in order to engage with and act in the world p. 2

Global competence is being constructed on exactly this model p. 2

The emerging OECD 2030 framework can be visualized like this: p. 2

The case for developing global competence lies in the challenges and opportunities of the globalised world. p. 3

Schools will continue to play an important role in helping young people live together p. 3

The development of Global Competence can also support employability. p. 3

need to acquire the skills and develop the attitudes to interact effectively and appropriately with people in different countries and with people of different cultures in their local context. p. 3

The possible inclusion of Global Competence as a theme in future rounds of the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) p. 3

But no school should fail to educate its students to understand and respect cultural diversity. p. 3

All young people should be able to challenge cultural and gender stereotypes, to reflect on the causes and solutions of racial, religious and hate violence and to help create tolerant, integrated societies. p. 3

need for an evidence-based approach to teaching and assessing global competence is urgent p. 3

they can and should be moved forward quickly. p. 3

Definition of Global Competence p. 4

Global Competence is a complex learning goal p. 4

separate and measurable learning objectives p. 4

deconstruct the macro domain of global competence into “dimensions” p. 4

broken down into distinct “components” that can then be measured p. 4

The definition of Global Competence proposed by the OECD for PISA is new and challenging: p. 4

diversity should be valued as long as it does not violate human dignity p. 4

Valuing human dignity and valuing cultural diversity p. 4

Global competence is the capacity to analyse global and intercultural issues critically and from multiple perspectives, to understand how differences affect perceptions, judgments, and ideas of self and others, and to engage in open, appropriate and effective interactions with others from different backgrounds on the basis of a shared respect for human dignity. p. 4

encompassing three dimensions p. 4

The globally competent person brings his/her knowledge, understanding, skills, attitudes and values together in order to work with others to solve globally-relevant problems and to improve the collective well-being of current and future generations p. 4

These dimensions are knowledge and understanding, skills and attitudes. p. 4

Acquiring Global Competence is a life-long process p. 4

social and emotional skills at its core are built in early childhood p. 4

no one point at which an individual becomes completely globally competent (Deardorff, 2014) p. 4

PISA would like to assess at what stage in this process 15-year-old students are situated, and how effectively their schools address the development of global competence. p. 4

Box 2: Perspectives on Global Competence from different cultures p. 5

The literature, theories and frameworks on intercultural competence, global competence and global citizenship emerge predominantly from a Western context. p. 5

from South Africa and involves the concept of Ubuntu p. 5

Ubuntu. p. 5

the word is found in a Zulu proverb, meaning that a person is a person because of others p. 5

concept of Ubuntu can be used to illustrate a collective identity, as well as connectedness, compassion, empathy, humility, and action. p. 5

key themes across different cultures in regard to global competence, Deardorff (2013) noted the following elements: respect, listening, adaptation, relationship building, seeing from multiple perspectives, self-awareness and cultural humility. p. 5


first dimension p. 5

third dimension p. 5

attitude” may be defined as the overall mind-set which an individual adopts towards an object (e.g. a person, a group, an institution, an issue, a behaviour, a symbol, etc.) and typically consists of four components: a belief or opinion about the object, an emotion or feeling towards the object, an evaluation (either positive or negative) of the object, and a tendency to behave in a particular way towards that object p. 5

“Knowledge” may be defined as the body of information that is possessed by an individual p. 5

understanding” may be defined as the comprehension and appreciation of meanings p. 5

four components p. 5

Global Competence requires knowledge and understanding of global issues, as well as intercultural knowledge and understanding. p. 5

Globally competent behaviour requires an attitude of openness p. 5

second dimension p. 5

skills”, defined as the capacity for carrying out a complex and well-organised pattern of either thinking (in the case of a cognitive skill) or behaviour (in the case of a behavioural skill) in order to achieve a particular goal. p. 5

of respect p. 5

of globalmindedness p. 5

Global Competence requires numerous skills, p. 5

of responsibility for one’s own actions. p. 5

ttitudes themselves can be structured around values. p. 5

value” may be defined as a general belief that an individual holds about the desirable goals that should be striven for in life p. 5

valuing human dignity and valuing cultural diversity p. 5

are explicitly included as critical filters p. 6

Figure 1. The dimensions of the proposed assessment of Global Competence p. 6

Box 3: Defining culture p. 7

internally heterogeneous and contain individuals who adhere to a range of diverse beliefs and practices p. 7

constantly changing and evolving over time p. 7

material, p. 7

material, social and subjective aspects of culture p. 7

Culture is a composite formed from all three aspects, consisting of a network of material, social and subjective resources. p. 7

The full set of cultural resources is distributed across the entire group, but each individual member of the group only uses a subset of the full set of cultural resources that is potentially available to them (Barrett et al., 2014). p. 7

all people belong to multiple cultures, p. 7

each person participates in a different constellation of cultures p. 7

cultural affiliations intersect, and each individual occupies a unique cultural positioning. p. 7

People’s cultural affiliations are dynamic and fluid p. 7

Intercultural encounters occur when cultural differences are perceived and become important because of the situation or the individual’s own orientation and attitudes p. 7

intercultural competence is required in order to interact, communicate and understand the position and perspective of the other across the perceived cultural group boundary. p. 7

Outline of the assessment strategy p. 8

PISA 2018 assessment aims to build a single scale that measures to what extent students are able to use their knowledge and understand, recognise relationships and perspectives, and think critically about a specific global or intercultural issue p. 8

based solely on the Global Competence cognitive items p. 8