Trends Shaping Education 2016

Citation Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2016). Trends Shaping Education 2016. Paris, France: OECD Publishing. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/trends_edu- 2016-en. Sidewiki
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@book{oecd2016trends,
address = {Paris, France},
author = {{Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development}},
date-added = {2016-01-28 20:00:02 -0500},
date-modified = {2016-09-22 17:41:10 -0400},
date-read = {2016-09-22 17:41:10 -0400},
keywords = {educational trends; 21st century education; educational reform; environmental scanning},
publisher = {OECD Publishing},
read = {1},
title = {Trends Shaping Education 2016},
url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/trends_edu- 2016-en},
year = {2016},
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Highlights

Executive summary p. 11

trends in this book start with “big picture” global changes before honing in on nations and cities, and then turn to the more “micro” level of families and children. p. 11

Globalisation p. 11

Facilitated by fast changing technology and decreasing transport costs p. 11

bringing greater ethnic, linguistic and cultural diversity to OECD countries p. 11

Politically p. 11

Economically p. 11

spread of multinational companies with a truly global reach p. 11

new global challenges, such as climate change p. 11

As global challenges, they do not stop at national borders and cannot be solved by the actions of a single government or actor p. 12

Rising inequality between and within countries p. 12

require a new approach to economic policies p. 12

new broad emphasis on social cohesion p. 12

Tackling challenges that require co-ordinated and co-operative responses requires a new commitment to global governance and multilateralism p. 12

Education has a role to play in providing the skills and competencies needed to operate in this new world. p. 12

The future of the nation-state p. 12

how to balance public spending in difficult economic times p. 12

How will rising health and pension costs associated with living longer affect budgets available for other spending areas, such as education and defence? p. 12

Another key role of the nation-state is developing the productivity of its labour force and ensuring the skill needs of the nation are met p. 12

move towards equality of the sexes. p. 12

Educators need to be aware of the advanced skills their students will need to flourish in more knowledge-intensive labour markets, as well as the potential impact of changing security, health and spending priorities. p. 12

Are cities the new countries? p. 12

the rise of the megacity. p. 12

Yet urban environments are confronted with a paradox: they concentrate productivity and employment opportunities, but they can also host high levels of poverty and labourmarket exclusion. p. 12

liveability of a city can be enhanced through safer streets, better infrastructure and reductions in commuting time p. 12

Education can and does play a role in all of this, by teaching civic literacy, providing the skills needed for community engagement, and supporting creativity and innovation throughout the lifespan. p. 13

Family matters p. 13

families have become smaller and individuals are deciding to have children later in life, or not at all. p. 13

Numbers of divorces are rising even as marriage rates are declining p. 13

safer environments and better healthcare have allowed child mortality rates to steadily decrease across most OECD countries. p. 13

Household debt has been rising across most OECD countries, and youth are now at a greater risk of living in poverty than their older counterparts. p. 13

worry that the modern world has created new stresses for our societies, and especially for our children. Child obesity, cyberrisks (such as online bullying) and reported levels of stress p. 13

important series of questions about how education can best support children and families, especially the poorest and most disadvantaged. p. 13

A brave new world p. 13

ow technology is transforming our lives p. 13

Increasingly mobile and adaptive technologies p. 13

Internet users are more and more likely to perform multiple online activities simultaneously. p. 13

new technology can also give rise to previously unknown risks and dangers p. 13

Hacking, cyberbullying and identity theft p. 13

schools and teachers are increasingly faced with the challenges of educating and guiding students through the advantages and disadvantages of the virtual world, without always having the necessary skills themselves. p. 13

AND EDUCATION? p. 14

At the end of each section a series of questions are posed linking the trend to education. p. 14

Overview: The impact of trends on the future of education p. 15

The focus is on OECD countries and the BRIICS (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and South Africa) where data are available. p. 15

in some cases the trends are charted over a decade; in others, longer term trends of up to 50 years are available p. 15

WHY DO WE NEED TRENDS SHAPING EDUCATION? p. 16

Looking at trends informs our ideas about what might happen as we better understand what is already changing in education’s wider environment. p. 16

This book is a starting point for consideration about what is setting directions for the future p. 16

TRENDS SHAPING EDUCATION 2016 p. 16

Globalisation p. 16

Politically p. 16

Politically, p. 16

recognition that globalisation is here to stay p. 16

growing numbers of countries that permit citizens to hold more than one nationality p. 16

increasing democratisation of our countries p. 16

Economically p. 16

rise of international trade, foreign direct investments and other markers of worldwide financial integration, p. 16

spread of multinational companies with a truly global reach. p. 16

global economic balance p. 17

emerging economies of Brazil, China and India now place comfortably among the world’s ten largest economies. p. 17

increasingly important political role in global affairs p. 17

G20 p. 17

a fundamental transformation in the balance of economic power and world finance. p. 17

magnitude of global inequality p. 17

increasing p. 17

the gap between rich and poor is at its highest level in 30 years. p. 17

Global challenges p. 17

climate change p. 17

call for global solutions p. 17

Education can and should play a role in changing the behaviours, attitudes and expectations that make a difference. p. 17

global trends p. 17

economic integration, migration, climate change p. 17

rises in inequality p. 17

they do not stop at national borders and cannot be solved by the actions of a single government or actor. p. 17

will require a new approach to economic policies, but also a new broad emphasis on social cohesion p. 17

challenges that require co-ordinated and co-operative responses requires a new commitment to global governance and multilateralism. p. 17

supremacy of individual nations co-ordinating through post-war institutions, each with its own (usually short-term) interests at heart is now no longer workable p. 17

Traditional methods of co-ordinating responses and negotiating action to combat shared threats are challenged by the speed and power of new technologies, which allow individuals and organisations to stay one step ahead of formal regulations p. 17

Education has a role to play p. 18

providing the skills and competencies needed p. 18

influence the life outcomes of the most disadvantaged p. 18

powerful tool to reduce inequity. p. 18

integration of migrants p. 18

teaching basic skills p. 18

instilling values p. 18

helping to define identity p. 18

teaching of foreign languages, global competencies for business and trade, and raising awareness of climate change effects and science. p. 18

global competencies mention p. 18

impact of climate change on planning and school infrastructure p. 18

brain drain in lower income economies p. 18

These issues require strategic thinking and planning p. 18

holistic approach p. 18

impact and interplay of global trends with education as a whole, on the system level. p. 18

The future of the nation-state p. 18

how to balance public spending in difficult economic times p. 18

diabetes and dementia are now the fastest growing causes of death across OECD countries. p. 18

nations must develop plans of action (and funding) to address them. p. 19

Another key role of the nation-state is developing the productivity of its labour force and ensuring the skill needs of the nation are met. p. 19

the move towards equality of the sexes. p. 19

higher fertility rates p. 19

persistent challenges: the continuing difficulty of reconciling family and working life, unequal representation of women in managerial, entrepreneurial and parliamentary roles and a persistent gender wage gap. p. 19

Other challenges for nations revolve around the necessity to compete in an increasingly knowledge based global economy. p. 19

transport prices have fallen and trade barriers have lifted p. 19

production of basic goods has to a large extent been taken over by developing countries with lower wage costs p. 19

OECD countries have maintained their competitive edge by producing goods and services that require high levels of knowledge, skill, creativity and innovation. p. 19

Educators need to be aware of the advanced skills their students will need to flourish in more knowledge-intensive labour markets, without neglecting the development of other important competencies. p. 19

include 21st century skills such as global languages, advanced digital skills, as well as social and emotional intelligence. p. 19

Education can also play a role in helping economies equal the playing p. 19

Are cities the new countries? p. 19

city life is distinctive, to the extent that cities in two very different countries, such as New York City and Shanghai, will tend to have more in common with each other than with the rural communities in p. 19

their own country p. 20

half of the world’s population lives in cities and this ratio is projected to increase to seven out of ten people by 2050 p. 20

concentration of resources found in cities makes it easier to conduct business p. 20

For businesses and innovation, location matters, and more and more often that location is a city p. 20

urban areas are confronted with a paradox: they concentrate productivity and employment opportunities, but they can also host high levels of poverty and labourmarket exclusion. p. 20

contribute to more tenuous social networks and disconnection from family and community, which can engender social alienation, low levels of trust and violence p. 20

engaging and involving citizens in their communities particularly important. p. 20

Citizen involvement has become a major force in urban policy and planning p. 20

Internet is helping spur citizen engagement p. 20

liveability of a city often influences where people choose to settle down. Liveability can be enhanced through safer streets, better infrastructure, and reductions in commuting time p. 20

city living is also associated with certain risks p. 20

higher air pollution p. 20

risks for respiratory health and cardiovascular disease p. 20

Higher noise levels p. 20

sleeping problems as well as difficulty concentrating p. 20

close proximity of city-dwellers p. 20

rapid spread of viruses and disease p. 20

mental ones p. 21

greater lifetime risk for anxiety and mood disorders p. 21

education can and does play a role, teaching civic literacy, providing the skills needed for community engagement, and supporting creativity and innovation throughout the lifespan. p. 21

education will also need to be prepared for a number of trends p. 21

planning for increasing (or declining) neighbourhood populations p. 21

protecting school buildings and infrastructure from extreme climate events p. 21

ensuring the safety of students p. 21

monitoring physical and emotional well-being p. 21

Family matters p. 21

number of reconstituted families and single parent households is rising p. 21

families are becoming smaller and individuals are deciding to have children later in life, or not at all p. 21

Numbers of divorces are rising even as marriage rates are declining p. 21

legalising same-sex marriages p. 21

As our concept of the institution of marriage transforms, so too does our thinking about families and family structures p. 21

public spending on family benefits has increased across most OECD countries p. 21

Children between 0 and 5 years old (the most vulnerable age group) are especially targeted p. 21

governments are trying to ease the burden on families with children p. 21

governments’ attempts to increase birth rates across OECD countries, amidst worries of our ageing populations. p. 21

Governments are also funding interventions to help people make healthier choices p. 21

nutrition fact labels p. 21

smokefree areas p. 21

public health measures p. 21

tobacco consumption is decreasing p. 21

child mortality rates to steadily decrease p. 21

Household debt has been rising p. 22

youth are now at a greater risk of living in poverty p. 22

Child obesity, cyber-risks (such as online bullying) and reported levels of stress have all increased in the last decade p. 22

suicide rates have decreased p. 22

improved awareness of mental health issues p. 22

difficult debate about the rights and responsibilities of parents and schools p. 22

worries about schools and education systems more generally being asked to take on responsibilities that should be those of parents and families p. 22

clear role for schools in promoting acceptance of new family structures and encouraging tolerance and diversity p. 22

how education (starting with early childhood and extending across the lifespan) can best support families, especially the poorest and most disadvantaged among them p. 22

issue of trust between parents and teachers and the impact this might have on the learning environment as well as teacher recruitment and retention p. 22

A brave new world p. 22

pace of technological development is exponential and its impact much less predictable p. 22

development of the information and communication technology (ICT) sector has changed the way we communicate, work and even socialise p. 22

we increasingly do many of these things at once: Internet users are more and more likely to perform multiple online activities simultaneously p. 22

social media has pervaded all aspects of modern life in just a few short years p. 22

major developments in biotechnology may change our lives in dramatic ways p. 23

used in medicine to combat disease p. 23

in agriculture to produce higher yields and more resistant crops p. 23

in the environment to develop cleaner energy p. 23

genome sequencing p. 23

prices have been dropping exponentially in the last decade p. 23

increasingly allows individuals to map their genes and identify whether they carry potentially life-threatening mutations. p. 23

rise in the numbers of patent applications p. 23

give rise to previously unknown risks and dangers p. 23

Cyberfraud, hacking, cyberbullying and identity theft p. 23

challenges for governments will be staying abreast of the evolution of technology and human behaviour p. 23

revenge porn p. 23

cybersecurity certificates and courses p. 23

schools and teachers are increasingly faced with the challenges of educating and guiding students through the advantages and disadvantages of the virtual world, without always having the necessary skills themselves p. 23

regarding the co-construction of knowledge as it relates to the educational objective truth: whose voice counts? p. 23

how does “textbook learning” interact with and perhaps compete with the easy answers available at the simple push of a button? p. 23

education systems will have to adapt to digital environments to address worries about decreasing attention spans, digital withdrawal disorder and fear-of-missing-out syndromes p. 23

continuing advances in biotechnology and cognitive performance enhancing drugs raise difficult technical and ethical questions p. 23

A FINAL WORD p. 23

these trends are themselves shaped by education and manifest within it. p. 23

Globalisation p. 27

GLOBAL INTEGRATION AND GOVERNANCE p. 30

And education? p. 31

Should schools and universities be aware of labour market demands at the global level in order to prepare their students to work abroad and in multinational companies? In addition, what elements of inter-cultural sensitivity and co-operation can be taught? p. 31

Do students educated abroad have a responsibility to return to work in their home country in order to transfer their knowledge back to their nations and peers? What role do OECD countries have in minimising brain drain? p. 31

The internationalisation of higher education has created new opportunities for individuals and new markets for institutions. Is this likely to serve to standardise the subjects and programmes of study on offer? Is there still room for context dependent and locally-tied programmes and specialities? p. 31

PEOPLE ON THE MOVE p. 32

And education? p. 33

How can schools better prepare for the inflow of students from various backgrounds, socio-economic classes and cultures? How can they better distribute their resources to aid students who need extra help, for example new immigrants, in the language of study? p. 33

What responsibility do schools have in communicating and teaching the values of society? How can they better identify and stop radicalisation or tensions among groups? And how can teachers be supported in this task? p. 33

Transferability of skills and experience is one of the big challenges for a diverse and mobile world. Are our educational and labour systems able to adequately recognise prior learning and qualifications? How should this be accomplished? p. 33

Deeper learning?! p. 33

INTERCONNECTED FINANCIAL MARKETS p. 34

And education? p. 35

Economies are becoming increasingly intertwined and interdependent. How can education nurture the kind of transferable skills to cope and adapt to economic uncertainty and change? p. 35

Increasing competition in global markets has promoted the widespread notion that countries need constant innovation to maintain their competitive position. Does education foster and value the creativity necessary to be innovative? p. 35

Just as our world has changed, so too has education, becoming increasingly mobile and flexible. How well do initiatives such as online learning, MOOCs, and lifelong learning deliver on their promises? How can they be strengthened? p. 35

INCREASING AFFLUENCE, INCREASING INEQUALITY p. 36

And education? p. 37

Initial education and lifelong learning play a role in lifting people out of poverty by, for example, providing them with the right kinds of skills for the labour market. What kinds of incentives would strengthen this function of education? And what is the role of non-formal learning in this process? p. 37

GC: metacognition p. 37

What responsibility do education systems have in teaching students about the challenges present in struggling and conflict ridden countries, and creating a sense of empathy, concern and support? p. 37

GC: Global citizenship p. 37

Should OECD countries expand the role of tertiary education systems in sponsoring students from low-income countries? Could greater emphasis be placed on supporting tertiary offerings in poorer regions of countries? p. 37

THE GLOBAL THREAT OF CLIMATE CHANGE p. 38

And education? p. 39

What kind of tertiary and post-secondary training might be needed to provide the skills needed for a green economy? p. 39

How can education foster the necessary attributes and knowledge to foster the international co-operation to devise a plan for co-ordinated action on global climate change? p. 39

What is the role of formal education in raising awareness and creating responsible citizens with civic values, critical thinking skills and sustainable consumption habits? p. 39

GC: global citizenship GC: critical thinking p. 39

INFOGRAPHIC: GLOBALISATION AND EDUCATION p. 40

Brainstorming the links between global trends and education p. 41

Figure 1.13. Infographic: Globalisation and education p. 41

The future of the nation-state p. 45

INFOGRAPHIC: THE FUTURE OF THE NATION AND EDUCATION p. 58

Brainstorming the links between global trends and education p. 59

Figure 2.13. Infographic: The future of the nation-state p. 59

Are cities the new countries? p. 63

INFOGRAPHIC: CITIES AND EDUCATION p. 76

Brainstorming the links between global trends and education p. 77

Figure 3.13. Infographic: Are cities the new countries? p. 77

Family matters p. 81

INFOGRAPHIC: FAMILIES AND EDUCATION p. 94

Brainstorming the links between global trends and education p. 95

Figure 4.13. Infographic: Family matters p. 95

A brave new world p. 99

INFOGRAPHIC: TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCATION p. 112

Brainstorming the links between global trends and education p. 113

Figure 5.13. Infographic: A brave new world p. 113

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